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What is a fragment?

A Fragment represents a behaviour or a portion of user interface in an Activity. You can combine multiple fragments in a single activity to build a multi-pane UI and reuse a fragment in multiple activities.

A fragment must always be embedded in an activity and the fragment’s lifecycle is directly affected by the host activity’s lifecycle. For example, when the activity is paused, so are all fragments also will be in paused state, and when the activity is destroyed, so are all fragments will be destroyed.

Manage Fragment Transaction:

To change fragment like add/remove/replace in that case you must use APIs from Fragment Transaction. You can get an instance of Fragment Transaction from your Activity like this:

FragmentManager fragmentManager = getFragmentManager();

FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();

Suppose you want to add a fragment into your activity’s view then you have to follow below code:

ExampleFragment fragment = new ExampleFragment();

fragmentTransaction.add(, fragment);



In the above code snippet add() method have two parameter

  1. Layout id of the activity’s view where you want to add fragment
  2. Fragment object which you want to add into activity layout

For replace a fragment:

fragmentTransaction.replace(, newFragment);


After all changes make sure you are calling commit() function on fragment transaction without this your changes will not be visible.

// Create new fragment and transaction

Fragment newFragment = new ExampleFragment();

FragmentTransaction transaction = getFragmentManager().beginTransaction();

// Replace whatever is in the fragment_container view with this fragment,

// and add the transaction to the back stack

transaction.replace(, newFragment);


// Commit the transaction




Manage Fragment Stack:

In the above example we mention addToBackStack(String name) means this fragment will add into stack . Add this transaction to the back stack. This means that the transaction will be remembered after it is committed, and will reverse its operation when later popped off the stack.

And Parameter Name: An optional name for this back stack state, or null.


To traverse accurately all fragments you can override onBackPressed() function on your main activity also.



public void onBackPressed() {

    FragmentManager fm = getFragmentManager();

    if (fm.getBackStackEntryCount() > 0) {


    } else {




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16 thoughts on “Understanding of fragments and manage fragment stack and transaction in android”

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